Professor Cloud Constitutional Criminal Procedure Fall 2011 Course Web Page
I. Course Information:
A. Course Materials.
1. Case Book. Morgan Cloud, Constitutional Criminal Procedure (Skye Books 2011 2d Edition).
The case book will be available for purchase following the Labor Day Holiday, and after the course drop/add deadline has passed, at the Law School copy center. All students enrolled in this course are required to purchase the 2011 text. Once students have purchased the hardcopy text, they will have access to the e-book available on the Law School server. For the class meetings held before the 2011 Edition is available for purchase, all assignments will be available at this webpage.
DO NOT purchase new or used copies of my West case book, Phillip E. Johnson & Morgan Cloud, Constitutional Criminal Procedure: From Investigation to Trial, Fourth Edition (Thomson/West 2006). We will NOT use the West case book in our class.
2. Administrative Information for the Course
a. Contact Information for Professor Cloud:
Office: G536 (Gambrell 5th floor)
b. Office hours: Mondays and Wednesdays, 3:30 – 5:30.
II. Assignments for Class Meetings.
Monday August 22, 2011.
1. Introduction to the Fourth Amendment.
Read the text of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution below and be prepared to discuss the questions following the text of that amendment.
a. Discussion of the text of the Fourth Amendment.
1. Read the Amendment's text in the next paragraph, and be ready to discuss the questions that follow it.
"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized."
b. Questions for discussion.
i. What right does the Fourth Amendment protect? Who possesses that right?
ii. What is the definition of the word "right" in the Fourth Amendment? Does the text define the term? If not, how do we know what it means? Be ready to answer the same questions for other key terms and phrases, including free, unreasonable, search, seizure, probable cause, particularity.
iii. Who does the Fourth Amendment regulate? To the extent it regulates government actors, does this include everyone? Federal? State? Local? Does the text give us the answers?
iv. What conduct is prohibited by the Fourth amendment? What conduct is permitted by the Fourth Amendment?
v. If the Fourth Amendment is violated, what remedies are available? Who can enforce those remedies? Does the text answer these questions? If not, where do we find the answers?
vi. What is the relationship between the first (“reasonableness”) clause and the second (warrant) clause of the Fourth Amendment?
Wednesday, August 24.
1. Introduction to the Fourth Amendment, continued:
View the following video clips by clicking on the link for each.
Links a & b both concern a traffic stop in Maryland and subsequent events.
a. This recording was made by the motorcyclist using a helmet camera. Based on the driver's own recording, was the traffic stop justified? Does it matter that the officer was out of uniform and driving an unmarked car? Was the officer justified in approaching the driver with his gun drawn in these circumstances?
Traffic stop video.
b. Is the subsequent prosecution of the driver for recording the traffic stop and posting the recording on the internet governed by the Fourth Amendment? Be ready to explain your answer. Does this prosecution implicate other constitutional rules? If so, which? Arrests and prosecutions of citizens for videotaping police acts done in public are possible under the laws of many states. Prison sentences for 10 years or longer can be (and have been) imposed in some states.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UK3u-C__4T8Garver prosecution news clip.
Clips c, d, and e all concern the arrest of Emily Good by Rochester, NY police for videotaping their encounter with another citizen while she stood in her front yard. In addition to the issues raised concerning the first pair of videos, does the setting change the analysis of rights, duties, and powers? Is the issue resolved by the arresting officer's claims of concerns about safety? What remedies are available to Ms. Good and Mr. Garver if their rights were violated?
c. Arrest of Emily Good.
e. Press conference, Emily Good's attorney.
2. Read pp. 1-10 in Chapter 1 of the 2d. Edition of the case book by clicking on the linked page numbers.
Monday August 29:
3. The Warren Court replaces property with privacy.
Read: Jack Rakove, Revolutionaries (2010), clink link for excerpt, pp. 78-79
Framers' Views about Property. (Posted with the Author's Express Permission)
Wednesday August 31.
4. Fourth Amendment Standing. Read Chapter 1, pp. 22-26.
For additional information and analysis, read: Morgan Cloud, Rights Without Remedies: The Court That Cried "Wolf," 77 Mississippi Law Journal 467 (2007) (This paper was presented as the 2006 James Otis Lecture at the University of Mississippi School of Law.).
Monday September 5: No Class/Labor Day Holiday
Wednesday September 7.
5. Fourth Amendment Standing, Continued. Read pp. 26-43.
Monday September 12.
5. Standing, Continued. Class discussion will focus on the relationship between the opinion in U.S. v. Payner, pp. 40-43 and the following topics discussed in Rakas v. Illinois:
a. Do the facts and holding in Payner support or undercut Justice Rehnquist's arguments against target standing? (pp. 26-27) If target standing is rejected, why does the Payner Court reject the District Court's use of its inherent power to determine what evidence is admissible?
b. The decision in Payner rests upon the individual rights theory of standing (discussed in Rakas at pp. 27-28). Is this theory consistent with the text of the Fourth Amendment? Does the outcome in Payner raise any questions about this theory?
6. The Exclusionary Rule and Other Remedies. Read Ch. 2, pp. 44-54.
Wednesday September 14.
7. What is Suppressed? The Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine. Read pp. 54-64.
8. Assault on the Exclusionary Rule--Balancing & Deterrence Replace Rights Protection.
Read pp. 64-68.
Monday September 19
9. Balancing & Deterrence Replace Rights Protection, Continued. Read pp. 68-75.
10. The Good Faith Exception to the Warrant Requirement. Read pp. 75-84.
Wednesday September 21.
11. The Independent Source & Inevitable Discovery Exceptions. Read pp. 84-98.
12. The Warrant Preference Theory. Read Chapter 3, pp. 99-104.
Monday, September 26.
12. The Warrant Preference Theory, Continued. Discussion: Payton v. N.Y. to p. 104.
Wednesday September 28.
13. The Knock & Announce Rule revisited--Lecture re: pp. 104-107.
14. Warrantless Seizures of the Home. Prepare to discuss pp. 107-109.
15. The Meaning and Functions of Probable Cause. Prepare to discuss pp. 109-121.
16. Probable Cause, Warrants, and Seizures of People. Lecture re: pp. 121-126
Monday October 3.
17. Warrants, Technology, and the Katz Expectations Test. Read pp. 126-143. Prepare to discuss pp. 126-131, 136-143.
Wednesday October 5.
17. Warrants, Technology, and the Katz Expectations Test. Complete discussion through p. 143.
18. Warrant Exceptions--Consent. Lecture re: Chapter 4, pp. 144-161.
Monday October 10 -- Monday October 31: Warrant Exceptions.
19. Warrant Exceptions--Plain View. Prepare to discuss pp. 161-166, Lecture re: pp. 166-169.
20. Warrant Exceptions--Exigent Circumstances. Lecture re: pp. 170-175.
21. Warrant Exceptions--The Automobile Exception. Lecture re: pp. 175-184.
22. Warrant Exceptions--Containers in Automobiles. Lecture re: pp. 185-195
23. Warrant Exceptions--Seizures of Vehicles & Their Occupants. Lecture re: pp. 195-204.
24. Warrant Exceptions--Searches Incident to Arrest. Read pp. 204-227.
25. Warrant Exceptions--Inventory Searches. Lecture re: pp. 228-233.
(Wednesday October 19 -- Class Cancelled)
Wednesday November 2.
26. Reasonableness, Balancing, and the Terry Revolution. Read pp. 234-251.
Monday November 7.
27. The Terry Revolution, Continued. Read pp. 251-277, 285-292.,
Monday November 14.
28. The Terry Revolution, Continued. Read pp. 298-302, 307-312.
29 The Border. Read pp. pp. 312-318.
30. Interrogation and Confessions.
Wednesday November 16
31. Interrogation and Confessions, Read pp. .
Friday November 18 (make-up class).
32. Miranda Applied.
Read Chapter 6, pp. 319-324. 324-334, 337-347, 347-364.
Monday November 21.
33. Miranda Applied. Read pp. 364-370, 374-378, 383-398, 401-407.
Wednesday November 23.
No Class/Thanksgiving Holiday.
Monday November 28.
34. Miranda applied. Read pp. 417-430.
35. The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel and Confessions. Read pp. 439-449, 459-472.
III. Information for Final Examination--Fall Semester 2011.
1. Examination Schedule:
Date: Wednesday December 7, 2011
Time: 9:00 a.m.
2. Exam Review Session:
Date: Friday December 2, 2011
Time: 2:00 - 4:00 p.m
Room: Room 5F
3. Examination from Prior Years:
*(Reminder: The 2009 Examination was a take home exam, so the instructions are not relevant to this semester's exam. The fact pattern is a simplified version of the fact patterns I typically use; you can see how the two questions ask for legal and policy analysis.)